Enzyme gene variation in 5 species of Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Are the causes of the decline clearly reversible and understood and ceased? 6). Apidologie 31:455–456. 2005. Day, E. Personal communication. Male flight distance and population substructure in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris. 2006; Otterstatter and Thomson 2008). Where applicable, references are provided for information pertaining to B. affinis specifically. 2008. Bombus affinis worker of B. affinis Conservation status Critically Endangered Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Order: Hymenoptera Family: Apidae Tribe: Bombini Genus: Bombus Subgenus: Bombus Species: B. affinis Binomial name Bombus affinis Cresson, 1863 The past range of Bombus affinis Bombus affinis, commonly known as the rusty patched bumble bee, is a species of bumblebee endemic to North America. A recent meta–analysis of environmental impacts upon bees has demonstrated that eusocial species are disproportionately affected by pesticides (Williams et al., submitted). McFrederick, Q.S. Figure divided into 100 x 100 km grid cells. FEATURES. 2006. These species have short to medium tongue lengths and seem to have increased in abundance or range in recent decades (Colla and Packer 2008). Workers hatch and take over nest care and foraging. 2000. Thompson, H.M. and L.V. Macroparasites of sympatric species include conopid flies and Locustacarus buchneri (a tracheal mite) (Macfarlane et al. VI. COSEWIC Secretariat c/o Canadian Wildlife Service Environment Canada Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Tel. 1997. Her dissertation examines changes in bumble bee communities over the past century and looks into some of the causes for observed declines. 2006. Influences on the density and dispersion of bumble bee nests (Hymenoptera:Apidae). Previously she worked as a research assistant to Dr. James Thomson, Dr. Michael Otterstatter, and Dr. Robert Gegear at the University of Toronto, St. George Campus looking at pathogen spillover from managed to wild bumble bee populations. 2007. Males have been collected from as early as mid–May to the end of October and new queens, from mid–August to late September (Lui 1973). Plowright. 2007). Criterion B (Small Distribution Range and Decline or Fluctuation): Meets Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iv,v). Based on data from 56 sites from 1900–1999 and 2000–2007, B. affinis declined in distribution by 33%. Comparison of the relative abundance of each bumble bee species collected in Southern Ontario from 1971–1973, Appendix 1. Bee species of Nova Scotia, Canada, with new records and notes on bionomics and floral relations (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Schiestl, F.P., and E.M. Barrows. 2003. The larval stage of bumble bees has four instars. ), has expanded its range (Sheffield et al. Black (eds.) In the Bumble Bees of Eastern Canada (Laverty and Harder 1988), the species’ range in Canada is stated to be restricted to southern Ontario and southwestern Quebec. Bumblebees in Tasmania: their distribution and potential impact on Australian flora and fauna. 2005. The use of commercial bumble bees (Bombus impatiens in Canada) for greenhouse pollination with a high prevalence of parasites has been shown to cause pathogen spillover into populations of wild bumble bees foraging nearby (Colla et al. Figure 2. The rusty patched emerges early in spring and is one of the last species to go into hibernation. 6) were searched in 2005–2008. 2002. It is not known whether there is a physiological, behavioural or geographical barrier limiting its dispersal northwards. Williams, P.H. As a result their red–list does not provide any legal protection for the listed insects. Order: Hymenoptera. 1962 Bees of the Eastern United States. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 56:69–73. In both studies, bumble bees were opportunistically collected using insect nets and identified to species. Range: 1989. It usually nests underground in abandoned rodent burrows. 2006. Holm, S.N. Suspected percent reduction in total number of mature individuals over the next 10 years. Williams P.H. The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) was created in 1977 as a result of a recommendation at the Federal–Provincial Wildlife Conference held in 1976. In the 1970s, the Rusty-patched Bumble Bee was relatively common throughout its range which, in Canada, includes southern Ontario and southwestern Quebec. Bumblebee vulnerability: common correlates of winners and losers across three continents. Funding was provided by Environment Canada. Environmental change and the distribution of British bumble bees (Bombus Latr.). Unlikely unless the cause of decline of the Canadian populations becomes known with certainty and removed. 1997). It arose from the need for a single, official, scientifically sound, national listing of wildlife species at risk. In conclusion, Mitchell (1962) likely gave the province of New Brunswick in error and the specimens he was referring to are likely from New Brunswick county in New Jersey, USA. Habitat loss is a steady long–term threat to this species, and likely does not explain its sudden collapse. Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences 258:299–302. of Biology, 4700 Keele St. Toronto, ON M3J 1P3. Are there extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence? In Guelph, ON, peak worker production was found to be during the middle two weeks of June (Lui 1973). London: Davis–Poynter. 1999. Biodiversity and Conservation 17:1379–1391. They can thus obtain nectar in the absence of floral hosts to which their tongue length is more closely adapted. Bumblebee Economics. (Hymenoptera:Apidae), in montane meadows. Compared to some other bumble bees, B. affinis seems to be relatively cold–tolerant and has been found at elevations as high as 1676 m in the southern parts of its range (Canadian National Collection). 2006 Genetic sex determination and extinction Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21:55–57. Journal of Pesticide Reform 21:15–22. Cane (eds.) Greef, M. and P. Schmid–Hempel. Near Boston, Mass., U.S.A., another colour morph (var. Because Bombus affinis is relatively easily reared in captivity and was historically quite common, it was used as a model system for various physiological and ecological experiments (e.g., Macior 1966; Fisher 1983; Bregazzi and Laverty 1992; Schiestl and Barrows 1999) and it is thus an important reference species for experimental biology and research. Neonicotinoids have been shown to be especially lethal to bees (compared to other pesticides) even at concentrations in the parts per billion (ppb) range (EPA 1994; Marletto et al. November 2008. Hanley, B. Darvill, J.S. Its range has been reduced by over 90%, and is now only found in small pockets, with areas around Madison seeing some of the most consistent numbers in recent years. Males of a closely related species (B. terrestris) have been estimated to fly between 2.6 and 9.9 km from the colony of origin (Kraus et al. The FWS Federal Register is planning on adding Bombus affinis Cresson, 1864 to the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife but publication the final ruling was delayed until March 21, 2017. List of forage plant species for B. affinis as compiled in Evans, Appendix 2. Harvard University Press, U.S.A. Hobbs, G.A. comm.). A male was collected in Pinery Provincial Park in August 2005. Typical colony life cycle, with queens emerging in late spring, and peak worker number in July. Report on 2006–2007 Seasons (Submitted 10 March 2008). Although these members have relatively short tongues, they pierce the corollas of floral nectar tubes to access nectar from long–tubed flowers. Brown Belted Bumble Bee, Bombus griseocolis Excerpted from Bumble Bees of Wisconsin Likely the third most common of Wisconsin bumble bee species, B. griseocollis gets its name from the thin belt of red/brown hair on its second abdominal segment. The loss of this species may result in increased vulnerability of native mammals, birds and other organisms which rely on pollinated plants for food and shelter. tache rousse (Bombus affinis) au Canada [Proposition] » ... bumble bees, it has an annual life cycle and requires a variety of habitats at different stages in this cycle. 2001. It requires a temperate climate and is restricted to regions south of the boreal forest. Parasites found in commercial colonies have been found in species other than B. impatiens (Macfarlane 1974; Macfarlane et al. 1971. Consequently, many early spring- and late autumn-flowering plants benefit from pollination services provided by members of this hardy genus. In addition, she is a member of the North American Pollinator Protection Campaign and her research has been featured in The Washington Post, Canadian Gardening, The Toronto Star, BioScience, CBC’s Quirks and Quarks, and The Daily Planet for Discovery Channel Canada. Population sizes for Ontario and Quebec are unknown. Fisher, R.M. Kirilenko, A., and R.S. Black (eds.) Pathogen spillover occurs when pathogens spread from a heavily infected ‘reservoir’ host population to a sympatric ‘non–reservoir’ host population (Power and Mitchell 2004). Reports: McFarland, K.P., Richardson, L. and Zahendra, S. 2014. Based upon existence. Carvell, C. 2002. Bumblebees of Wisconsin (Hymenoptera: Apidae). are rich in pollen and nectar and likely provide important forage habitat in agricultural areas. Biological Conservation 122:1–8. Canadian Entomologist 129:51–59. Biological Conservation 142:75–84. Caux. Despite sampling throughout the native Canadian range for B. affinis, only one specimen was found (Fig. Subgenus Bombus, Canadian Entomologist 100: 156–164. Lye, and B. Darvill. Dose–response relationships between pollination and fruiting refine pollinator comparisons for cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). The Bombus queen lays her eggs in the nest after spending the winter in hibernation. Hunt. Thompson, H.M. 2001. Laverty, T. and L.D. The Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, provides full administrative and financial support to the COSEWIC Secretariat. Thus, it is likely an important pollinator of both agricultural crops and native flowering plants. Kraus, F.B., S.Wolf and R.F.A.Moritz. Community and Ecosystem Ecology 32:555–563. Bombus affinis. Portland, OR: The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation. The Rusty–patched Bumble Bee is listed on the Xerces Society’s red–list of pollinator insects as ‘Imperiled’. Bombus affinis Cresson was first described by Cresson (1863). Bumblebees. Franklin’s Bumblebee, Bombus (Bombus) franklini (Frison) (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Bombus affinis is also ecologically important as it has one of the largest colony sizes ever recorded for a North American bumble bee species (Macfarlane 1974). Is there an inferred continuing decline in number of mature individuals? In total, development takes approximately five weeks but this varies with temperature and food supply (Alford 1975). Notes on the nesting habits of some of the less common New England bumblebees. Goulson, D. 2003. Macfarlane, R.P. Ronny Larson, J.I. Bombus affinis has been reared in captivity relatively easily in the past for scientific study (R. Gegear and the late T. Laverty pers. 2005. Extrapolating from Honeybees to Bumblebees in pesticide risk assessment. In all castes, the head is broadly rounded with the space between the base of the mandible and the compound eye about 2/3 as long as wide in queens and workers, and slightly wider than long in males (Laverty and Harder 1988). The most recently collected specimen was found in Pinery Provincial Park in Ontario, Canada. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Rusty–patched Bumble Bee Bombus affinis in Canada. Figure 7. Sperm reduces female longevity and increases melanization of the spermatheca in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Bequaert, J. Detection of Deformed wing virus, a honey bee viral pathogen, in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris and Bombus pascuorum) with wing deformities. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 82: 1–80.Mitchell, T.B. Globally, yes. Biological Conservation 109:37–45. Gels, J.A., D.W. Held, and D.A. Bombus terrestris, the buff-tailed bumblebee or large earth bumblebee, is one of the most numerous bumblebee species in Europe.It is one of the main species used in greenhouse pollination, and so can be found in many countries and areas where it is not native, such as Tasmania. 2006. 2004. Submitted to Biological Conservation. 2004. Other parasites that are known to infect sympatric species are Nosema bombi (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) and Crithidia bombi (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatidae) (Colla et al.2006) but these have not been recorded in B. affinis (possibly because of their recent introduction from Europe and the rarity of B. affinis in recent years). may make it especially vulnerable to accumulation of pesticides in the colony. Species designated at meetings of the full committee are added to the list. Designations are made on native species for the following taxonomic groups: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, arthropods, molluscs, vascular plants, mosses, and lichens. comm. For all castes, the pile on top of the head and on the face is black, and on the thorax mostly yellow, except for the presence of black pile between the wing bases. Mated queens emerge from diapause in the spring and look for potential nest sites. These reproductive individuals leave the colony and mate. Notes on the nesting habits of several North American bumblebees. As a result, many studies have investigated various ecological and evolutionary mechanisms using Bombus as a model system, resulting in the documentation of the presence of B. affinis in various regions of the U.S. and Canada. 7-Scutacarus acarorum Bombus affinis lateral mesosoma BMOC-15-0606-023.jpg 1,200 × 1,206; 807 KB Roy, S.M. Williams, N.M., E.E. Annual Review of Entomology 49:271–298. Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals? Thomson. 2008. Sheffield, C.S., P.G. 1963. Journal of Kansas Entomological Society 76:357–384. Ecological Entomology 31:616–622. However, competition is extremely difficult to study in natural conditions (Thomson 2006) and because honey bees have been in North America for hundreds of years, it is difficult to ascribe recent reductions in B. affinis to impacts of direct competition with honey bees. 18, Evans, E., Thorp,R., Jepson, S., and S.H. The loss of this bumble bee species may result in changes in food chains and ecosystem sustainability. 1994. 2005b. Specimen collected in 1971 at 1000 islands, Ontario. Production note:COSEWIC would like to acknowledge Sheila R. Colla for writing the status report on the Rusty–patched Bumble Bee Bombus affinis in Canada, prepared under contract with Environment Canada. The female stinging apparatus and warning colouration provide protection against some predators and humans. This species has been found foraging in a wide variety of habitats such as mixed farmland, sand dunes, marshes, urban and wooded areas.As the species is active from April to October a lengthy period of abundant flowering plants is required. Several species of Bombus, including Bombus affinis, emerge early in the spring and forage into the cool autumn weather of November (Laverty and Harder, 1988). Regulatory Note. Because B. affinis is a generalist forager, it competes with many other bee species for food resources. Pupae develop for another two weeks before hatching as full–sized adults. Murray, R.J. Paxton, J. Breen, D. Cotton, V. Santorum, and M.J.F. During this period, the existence of a colony depends on her. Additional sites (not included in Fig. Thank you also to the various museum curators for allowing me to examine specimens, especially Steve Marshall at U. of Guelph and Ontario Parks for support during fieldwork. Total population is unknown. Harder. Psyche 27:6–12. 2005. Rusty-patched Bumble Bee (Bombus affinis): Species Documentation Report to the Vermont Endangered Species Committee. 2006. Bombus affinis Species information The Rusty-patched Bumble Bee (bourdon à tache rousse) (Bombus affinis) is one of five North American members of the subgenus Bombus. on the life history of the particular species (Szymanski et al. comm. Thomson. These reproductive individuals leave the nest and mate. It is threatened by disease, pesticides, and habitat fragmentation, each of which could cause extirpation in the near future. The number of sex alleles in a population determines the proportion of diploids that are male and is itself determined primarily by the effective size of the population. Yes, survival from one tiny population seems highly unlikely, Is there a projected continuing decline in index of. 21–40. In the U.S., bumble bees have been surveyed in the past 10 years at Patuxent National Wildlife Refuge in Maryland by Sam Droege, and the Great Smoky Mountains National Park by Adrian Mayor. Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations. Ecological and life history traits predict bee species responses to environmental disturbances. Occasionally, B. affinis nests are found above ground, in one incidence inside an abandoned armchair (Macfarlane 1974). 2007; Evans et al. Report on 2005 Season (Submitted 7 November 2005). Heinrich, B. 2007). Note the lack of brown colouration on the second abdominal segment unlike the worker and male. McGee, B., H. Berges, and K. Callow. Ellis, and M.E. 5). Habitat use and conservation of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) Brood cells and honey pots are made of wax produced by the queen and workers. Imidacloprid. M.Sc. More details on the sampling protocol can be found in Colla and Packer (2008). Javorek, S. Personal communication. Canada–Species at Risk Act: None Canada–Provincial Status: Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre (ONHIC) Rank: S1 Critically Imperiled USA– Endangered Species Act: None IUCN Red list: None, Rusty–patched Bumble Bee – bourdon à tache rousseRange of occurrence in Canada (province/territory/ocean): Ontario, Quebec. A scientific note on the threat of small hive beetles (Aethina tumida Murray) to bumblebee (Bombus spp.) Taylor, A., personal communication, September 2009. The one remaining known site in Canada is in Pinery Provincial Park. Patch and landscape factors shape community assemblages of bumblebees, Bombus spp. Prepared for the Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation. Symbols: Urban garden Urban Park Agricultural field Sand dune/Beach Marsh/Bog Forest Old Field/Meadow. in southern New Brunswick, Canada. REG2001–11. While the taxonomy of some bumble bee species is controversial, the status of B. affinis is not (Cameron et al. Stiles, E.W. Its workers and males have a small rust-colored patch on the middle of their second abdominal segment. Is there a projected continuing decline in number of populations? Various life history traits of B. affinis (such as large body size, early emergence, long colony cycle, etc.) (2009) showed that bumble bees with narrow climatic niches are more vulnerable to extinction. 2003. Sites in Guelph and Belwood, Ontario were surveyed for bumble bees for three years (2004–2006) and the data compared to those from surveys performed in 1971–1973 at the same sites (Macfarlane 1974). Franklin’s Bumblebee, Bombus (Bombus) franklini (Frison) (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Sheila R. Colla has studied various aspects of bumble bee ecology and behaviour throughout North America. Bombus ashtoni is a naturally occurring social parasite which has not been seen anywhere for approximately 10 years, and is unlikely to have been a factor in the decline of B. affinis. Criterion A (Decline in Total Number of Mature Individuals): Meets Endangered A2ce. 2004. Xerces Society of Invertebrate Conservation Red List Status: ‘Imperiled’ = “At high risk of extinction due to very restricted range, very few populations (often 20 or fewer), steep declines, or other factors”. [Online]. Reasons for designation: This species, which has a distinctive colour pattern, was once commonly found throughout southern Ontario. Bumble bees are of special significance to First Nations people. On this page, Stage 4, males and new queens mate, the colony disintegrates, the old queen, workers and males die, and new queens hibernate. Status of Pollinators in North America. The majority of the species’ Canadian range occurs in southern Ontario with the remainder found in extreme SW Quebec. Workers have been collected foraging from mid–May until the end of September. (1986). Catalogue CW69–14/598–2010E–PDF ISBN 978–1–100–15946–1. 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